Experimental apparatus setup.
EL images of the multicrystalline solar cell at (a) , (b) , and (c) the temperature subtracted images.
(a) EL image under reverse bias . The red mark represents the area that corresponds to the bright area in Fig. 1(c). (b) EL emission spectrum from Si solar cell under reverse bias (Ref. 11).
(a) Structure of fabricated two-side finger solar cell and EL measurement. (b) Optical image of the sample. [(c) and (d)] EL images under forward bias obtained from and side, respectively. Inhomogeneities at upper-right-hand side may show less contrasts and not clear, thus the enlarged and contrast enhanced of upper-right-hand sides of both figures are shown as insets. [(e) and (f)] EL images under reverse bias obtained from and sides, respectively. Note that (d) and (f) are mirror images of the actual captured images for visibly comparing the EL patterns obtained from the and sides.
Schematic of mechanism of EL emission under reverse bias.
(a) Enlarged upper-right-hand side of Fig. 4(f) and marked locations for SIMS measurement. (b) SIMS depth profiles of oxygen at locations marked in (a).
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