SEM image of the film. The inset shows the profile image.
Evolution of magnetizations of films as a function of value detected by VSM. The inset shows curves of and .
(a) XRD spectra of the films. The inset shows the magnified pattern of the spectrum in the black frame. (b) The lattice constants and vs Li-doping concentration.
UV-visible absorption spectra of films. Inset: evolution of the wavelength of the transition peak as a function of value.
(a) Raman spectra of films. (b) Gauss fit of the Raman peak at of . The peaks in blue (dark) and green (light) refer to the vibration modes of wurtzite ZnO and spinel , respectively. Peaks (a) and (b) refer to interface of surface photon modes and multiple-photon mode or mode, respectively.
Electrical resistivities detected at 6 V vs doping concentration of Li in films.
Schematic diagrams of the magnetic coupling of Co ions in different Li-incorporation stages: (a) without Li doping, (b) stage I, and (c) stage II. The red circle, black circle with an arrow, red pentagram, blue pentagram, and big green circle in the diagrams represent Zn ion, Co ion at site with its intrinsic magnetic moment, deep-level defect in , deep-level defect induced by , and the action sphere of a BMP, respectively.
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