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Enhancement of ferromagnetism in films by lithium codoping
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

SEM image of the film. The inset shows the profile image.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Evolution of magnetizations of films as a function of value detected by VSM. The inset shows curves of and .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) XRD spectra of the films. The inset shows the magnified pattern of the spectrum in the black frame. (b) The lattice constants and vs Li-doping concentration.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

UV-visible absorption spectra of films. Inset: evolution of the wavelength of the transition peak as a function of value.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) Raman spectra of films. (b) Gauss fit of the Raman peak at of . The peaks in blue (dark) and green (light) refer to the vibration modes of wurtzite ZnO and spinel , respectively. Peaks (a) and (b) refer to interface of surface photon modes and multiple-photon mode or mode, respectively.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Electrical resistivities detected at 6 V vs doping concentration of Li in films.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Schematic diagrams of the magnetic coupling of Co ions in different Li-incorporation stages: (a) without Li doping, (b) stage I, and (c) stage II. The red circle, black circle with an arrow, red pentagram, blue pentagram, and big green circle in the diagrams represent Zn ion, Co ion at site with its intrinsic magnetic moment, deep-level defect in , deep-level defect induced by , and the action sphere of a BMP, respectively.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Enhancement of ferromagnetism in Zn0.95Co0.05O films by lithium codoping