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High efficiency top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a nearly Lambertian emission pattern
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10.1063/1.3225998
/content/aip/journal/jap/106/6/10.1063/1.3225998
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/106/6/10.1063/1.3225998

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The schematic illustration of the Ag and Al anode-based TOLEDs.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

The current density–voltage characteristics of hole only devices with Ag (or Al)/TAPC:0–8 wt % (80 nm)/Al structure. The inset shows the log-log plots of the current density–voltage characteristics.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The variation of the calculated luminous intensities of TOLEDs using (a) Ag and (b) Al anodes depending on the change in the -HIL thickness and the dipole position within the EML.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) The current density–voltage and (b) luminance-voltage characteristics of the Ag-based TOLED with a 25 nm thick -HIL (device 1) and the Al-based TOLEDs with a 40 nm thick -HIL (device 2) and a 30 nm thick -HIL (device 3).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The surface-normal EL intensities of the Ag-based TOLED with a 25 nm thick -HIL (device 1) and the Al-based TOLEDs with 40 (device 2) and 30 nm thick -HILs (device 3). The lines and symbols indicate the calculated and experimental results, respectively.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) The luminous efficiency–luminance and (b) external quantum efficiency–luminance characteristics of the Ag-based TOLED with a 25 nm thick -HIL (device 1) and Al-based TOLEDs with 40 (device 2) and 30 nm thick -HILs (device 3).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The normalized EL intensities of the TOLEDs with viewing angles.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The normalized emission patterns of Ag-based TOLED with a 25 nm thick -HIL (device 1) and Al-based TOLEDs with 40 (device 2) and 30 nm thick -HILs (device 3) with viewing angles. The dashed lines and symbols indicate the calculated and experimental results, respectively.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Characteristics of the TOLEDs.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/106/6/10.1063/1.3225998
2009-09-24
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: High efficiency p-i-n top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with a nearly Lambertian emission pattern
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/106/6/10.1063/1.3225998
10.1063/1.3225998
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