Magnetization process in FePd thin film. The two rows present two different areas in the film. Both of them present a magnetic bubble state just before saturation. The images on the left are raw data while the other images are enhanced by Fourier filtering. The images on the right are schematic representations to highlight the contrast observed in the last step of the magnetization process. The arrows refer to the direction of magnetic induction. The images are .
Schematic representation of the system used to study the structure of VBLs in domain walls.
Cross section of the whole system obtained from a multiscale simulation (Bloch wall, with a VBL containing a BP). The orientation of the magnetization for the in-plane component is given by the arrows and the color wheel, and by the grayscale for the out-of-plane contribution (along ). The norm of the arrows is proportional to the in-plane magnetization. The lateral size of the system is .
Cross section along the planes , , and (from top to bottom) with a VBL containing a BP.
Cross section along the planes , , and (from top to bottom) with a VBL containing no BP.
Relative energy of a system with and without a BP in the VBL. The reference energy is given by the system containing a domain wall without a VBL. The decrease in the energy when a BP is present is mainly due to the dipolar term.
Magnetic charges in the plane corresponding to the configuration of Fig. 5 when the transformation is performed on the magnetization and the configuration is left unrelaxed. From top to bottom: charges associated with the variation of , , and total charge. The charges due to the variation along are the same before and after the transformation and are not represented. The positive and negative charges are represented, respectively, by light and dark gray tones. Letters and refer to charges due to the variation of and .
Magnetic charges in the plane after the relaxation of the configuration in Fig. 7.
Cross sections of a system containing two VBLs with a BP. From top left to bottom right: whole system at (lateral size ); and zoom at , , and (lateral size ). The system is 20.7 nm thick and a field of 0.3 T is applied. The largest cell lateral size is 27.3 nm, while the smallest is 1.7 nm.
Cross sections of a system containing two VBLs with no BP. From top left to bottom right: whole system at (lateral size ); and zoom at , , and (lateral size ). The system is 15 nm thick and a field of 0.25 T is applied.
Comparison of simulated Fresnel contrasts and experimental contrasts for the two types of bubbles observed. The defocusing used is .
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