Distributions of electronic (solid lines) and nuclear (dashed lines) energy deposition of (a) 2 MeV He and (b) 6 MeV O ion implanted into LN crystals calculated by SRIM 2006.
Distribution of electronic (solid line) and nuclear (dashed line) energy deposition distribution of 46 MeV Cl ions into the LN crystals calculated by SRIM 2006.
Distribution of electronic (solid line) and nuclear (dashed line) energy deposition of 41 MeV He ions into the crystals calculated by SRIM 2006.
Distribution of defect concentrations of low energy ion-irradiated under a few conditions calculated by SRIM 2006. The solid line indicates the sum damage concentration profile.
Typical barrier-confined profile of light ion-implanted waveguide. The solid and dashed lines represent the single and multiple-energy implants configurations, respectively.
Typical barrier-confined profile in after heavy ion implantation.
“Enhanced ” confined profile of waveguide formed by light (solid line) and heavy (dashed line) ion implantation.
The profile of He-implanted waveguides with missing and strange modes, containing two positive wells besides the negative barrier [Zhang et al. (Ref. 116)].
The profile of a 1.75 MeV He-implanted waveguide calculated from Hu’s model.
The and profiles of He ion-implanted waveguides calculated from Jiang’s model [Jiang et al. (Ref. 126)].
The and profiles of the 22 MeV F-ion-irradiated waveguides [Olivares et al. (Ref. 89)].
The refractive index profiles of 45 MeV Cl-irradiated waveguides in at fluence of [Olivares et al. (Ref. 87)].
Typical geometries of channel waveguides in produced by diverse solutions: (a) two-step implantation, (b) one-shot implantation, (c) FIB writing, and (d) combination of ion implantation and selective light illumination. The dotted lines indicate the spatial locations of the channel waveguides.
Typical geometry for ridge waveguide formation using ion beam techniques: first ion implantation forms a planar waveguide layer, and Ar ion beam etching is used to remove the selected parts of the waveguide surface. The dotted line indicates the spatial location of the channel waveguides.
The microscope image of the cross section for the ridge waveguides in produced by C ion implantation and femtosecond laser ablation. The dashed line denotes the boundary between planar waveguide (WG) and the substrate. The inset shows the near field intensity distribution of the waveguide mode . The 3 MeV C ions at dose of were first used to form a planar waveguide layer. The ablation with a 100 fs pulsed laser at operating at 798 nm with a repetition rate of 1 kHz was then used to etch two groove channels on top of the planar waveguide. The laser beam was with energy of and the scanning rate along the sample surface was .
Fabrication process of the ridge waveguides in a Zn-doped layer by combination of LPE with IBEE [Hartung et al. (Ref. 45)].
The scanning electronic microscope images of microring resonator produced by F ion irradiation (at energy of 14.5 MeV and fluence of ) and the following Ar ion etching in . The structure consists of a microring and a bus waveguide: (a) the whole ring (with radius of and ridge height of ) and the bus waveguide; and (b) enlarged coupling region, the gap size is [Majkić et al. (Ref. 60)].
The (a) top view and (b) cross-view scanning electronic microscope images of the microdisk produced by 3 MeV O ion implantation and FIB milling.
The scanning electronic microscope image of the nanoair holes on top of wafers fabricated by FIB milling.
The scanning electronic microscope image of photonic crystal structures in a freestanding membrane produced by IBEE with low energy He ions. The thickness of the membrane is 540 nm [Schrempel et al. (Ref. 152)].
Comparison of transmission spectra of H (at dose of ) and O (at dose of ) implanted with the unimplanted samples: the solid line (unimplanted one), dashed line (500 keV H-implanted one without annealing), dotted line (500 keV H-implanted one after annealing), and closed circles (6 MeV O-implanted one without annealing).
The relative intensity of SHG (to the bulk) of a 2.0 MeV He-implanted planar waveguide after annealing at for 30 min [Rams et al. (Ref. 162)].
The micro-uminescence mappings of spectral shift in the Nd bands transition in (a) proton and (b) O implanted channel waveguides.
The microluminescence mapping of spectral shift in the Nd bands transition in the ridge waveguide produced by C ion implantation and femtosecond laser ablation. The dashed lines indicate the spatial location of the ridge waveguide.
The dependence of incident beam power ratio on the TWM gain factor at wavelength of 632.8 nm from the O implanted waveguide and bulk [Tan et al. (Ref. 177)].
The top view microscope image of reconfigurable straight and branch channel waveguide produced by selective green laser illumination (with a continuous-wave solid state laser at 532 nm) on top of a preexisting ion-implanted planar waveguide sample [Tan et al. (Ref. 44)].
Schematic plot of a typical Mach–Zehnder modulator.
Near-field intensity images of (a) diffraction, (b) self-focusing, and (c) gap solitons of the exploring light beams (at wavelength of 632.8 nm) in the binary waveguide arrays produced by ion implantation and selective light illumination. The image shown in (a) was taken when the light was just coupled into the waveguide array . The near field photos shown in [(b) and (c)] were taken when time equals 5 and 20 min, respectively.
The comparison of transmission spectra through the photonic bandgap crystal (solid line) with that through the waveguide (dashed line) in , showing the existence of a bandgap in the wavelength range of 1200–1600 nm. An extinction ratio of less than −12 dB was obtained when the light source in injected on the photonic crystal structure. The photonic crystal was fabricated by FIB milling on top of an annealed proton-exchanged waveguide [(Roussey) et al. Ref. 54].
Transmission spectrum of a microring resonator of radius . The measured normalized transmitted light at the through port for both TE (left) and TM (right) modes using a tunable source in the region is shown. The free spectral range is 1.66 nm and the finesse is 5. The modulation depth is approximately 7 dB [Guarino et al. (Ref. 53)].
Summary of basic parameters of crystals. (Some parameters are obtained from Refs. 19–21.)
Techniques related to energetic ion beams and their main parameters.
Summary of typical parameters of methods that have been used for 1D waveguides or thin films/membranes in by ion beam techniques.
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