Diagram of the confocal microscopy-spectroscopy setup: (a) He–Ne laser; (b) diode laser; (c) dichroic beam splitter; (d) microscope objective; (e) translation stage; (f) Er–Yb doped phosphate glass sample; (g) spatial filter; (h) filter; (i) spectrometer; (j) white-light lamp; (k) CCD camera (white-light microscopy); (l) flip mirrors; (m) mirrors; (n) microscope objective.
Transmission white-light images ( plane) of modified glass at a fixed scan speed of for varying femtosecond pulse energies and repetition rates.
(a) Normalized raman spectra of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass for (1) unmodified bulk glass, (2) modified high index region, and (3) modified low index region. (b) White-light transmissions image of modification: (1) unmodified bulk glass, (2) modified high index guiding region, and (3) modified nonguiding low index region. (c) He–Ne transmission near field image of the modification induced under femtosecond laser condition of repetition rate, pulse energy, scan speed.
Color map of shifts in the relative spectral position of the Raman peak as a function of the spatial position of the modified area written by femtosecond laser conditions of repetition rate, pulse energy, scan speed.
Color maps of shifts in the relative spectral positions of both the 1209 and Raman peaks as a function of the spatial position of the modified area at a fixed scan speed of for varying femtosecond pulse energies and repetition rates.
Maximum shift of the 1209 and Raman peaks inside of the induce modification. (a) Fixed pulse energy of for various repetition rates , (b) Fixed repetition rate of for various pulse energies of .
Average Raman signal shifts.
Raman signal shifts after thermal treatment.
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