Schematic drawing of obliquely evaporated film: (a) regular/thick films and (b) thin films (dashed line shows the evaporation direction).
Characteristic electro-optical response of the bistable SSFLC cell. Curve on the top is the shape of the applied waveform and curves on the bottom are intensities of light behind crossed polarizers for different amplitudes of the applied waveform.
Characteristic dependence of threshold voltage on the thickness of alignment layers for different deposition angles: (a) 2°, (b) 3°, (c) 4°, (d) 5°, (e) 6.5°, and (f) 8.5°. Numbers shown next to data points are measured nematic pretilt angles.
Typical textures of uniform and twisted states of the SSFLC at zero field for different thicknesses of alignment layers: (a) 20 nm, (b) 40 nm, and (c) 180 nm.
Diagram of structural transitions in SSFLC cell. (a) Thin alignment layer: 20 nm film evaporated at 5°. (b) Intermediate alignment layer: 90 nm film evaporated at 6.5°. (c) Thick alignment layer: 180 nm film evaporated at 6.5°. Dots on the triangular waveform represent transitions between different SSFLC states.
Micrographs of the SSFLC textures before and after structural switching transitions: (a) surface switching between two uniform states, (b) surface switching between twist and uniform states, (c) chevron switching between two twisted states, and (d) chevron and surface switching between two uniform states.
Micrographs of the SSFLC textures before and after structural switching transitions: (a) from uniform to twist state and (b) from twist to uniform state.
Threshold voltage of transitions in the SSFLC cell as a function of thickness. The evaporation angle for the films thinner than 500 Å was 5° and for the other films was 6.5°.
Plots of switching time vs FLC voltage calculated using Eq. (1) at four values of , with and .
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