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Structural and vibrational properties of Co nanoparticles formed by ion implantation
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Porod plots vertically offset for clarity and (b) background-subtracted SAXS intensities (fitted region shown in gray with spectra offset for comparison) for the samples as a function of annealing temperature.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Normalized and volume-weighted NP size distributions deduced from SAXS analysis as a function of (a) annealing temperature (for with inset at ) and (b) Co concentration (for ).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

TEM images for the samples annealed at different temperatures: (a) as-implanted, (b) , (c) , and (d) .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Arrhenius plot of the squared mean NP radius as a function of the inverse temperature ( is the Boltzmann constant and is the annealing temperature). The solid lines are linear fits to the experimental data.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

XANES spectra at the -edge for (a) bulk standards, (b) all samples, and (c) all samples.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Fitted hcp, fcc, and oxide fractions as a function of annealing temperature for (a) all samples and (b) all samples.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Summary of the crystallographic phase (measured at room temperature) of Co NPs formed by IBS determined from the current study (open symbols) and Refs. 1, 2, 5, and 7 (solid symbols) as functions of annealing temperature and (a) NP size and (b) of implant Co concentration.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

[(a), (c), and (e)] -weighted EXAFS spectra (offset for comparison) and corresponding phase corrected FT EXAFS spectra [(b), (d), and (f)] for bulk standards; all and all samples.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Structural parameters of the first NN shell showing (a) CN, (b) DW factor, (c) third cumulant , and (d) BL as a function of NP size. The solid line in (a) is the CN derived from Eq. (1). The insets in (b) and (c) show the same data plotted as inverse diameter. The inset in (d) shows the BL contraction relative to the bulk fcc Co standard as a function of inverse NP diameter with the solid line as a fit to Eq. (2)

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

[(a), (c), and (e)] -weighted EXAFS spectra and [(b), (d), and (f)] FT spectra for bulk hcp Co, and 52 and 28 Å diameter HCP Co NPs, all as a function of measurement temperature.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Thermal evolution of the FNN DW factors for the Co standards and NP samples. The solid lines are fits with a correlated anharmonic Einstein model [Eq. (3)].


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Table I.

Summary of Co implantation parameters showing the implantation fluence as a function of implantation energy (keV). All implants were performed at liquid- temperature with the exception of those implanted at 416 keV and .

Generic image for table
Table II.

Refined EXAFS fitting parameters and SAXS size distributions. , BL, DW, CN, and are the energy shift parameter, BL, DW factor, CN, and third cumulant, respectively.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Einstein temperature , structural disorder , and effective bond-stretching force constant .


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Structural and vibrational properties of Co nanoparticles formed by ion implantation