Current characteristics of hole-only devices with structure of -doped film (100 nm, 10 wt %)/Al (solid symbol) or (5 nm)/intrinsic film (100 nm)/Al (empty symbol).
characteristics of hole-only devices as a function of the doping concentration: (a) -doped TCTA and (b) -doped NPB. Insets in (a) and (b): blowup of the low-voltage range date for the same devices, showing the linear relationship. The conductivity is deduced from this set of data and shown in (c) vs doping level. The dashed line in (c) symbolizes a linear dependence of conductivity on doping level.
characteristics of (a) hole-only devices with structure of (5 nm)/ or -doped (100 nm)/Al (up) and electron-only devices with structure of Al/LiF (1 nm) or -doped (10)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (bottom). (b) Current-brightness characteristics of device A: (5 nm)/NPB (50 nm)/:C545T (1%, 30 nm)/BCP (10 nm)/Alq: (20 nm)/Al and device B: (10%, 40 nm)/NPB (10 nm)/:C545T (1%, 30 nm)/ (30 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al. Inset of (b) is the electroluminescence efficiency of device A and B.
XPS from (a) (left), (right), and (b) core levels for 20 nm thick undoped or doped films. (c) XPS for -doped or undoped and films. The doped films are 50 wt % content. Spectra are normalized to the same height in order to highlight changes in the line shape. The vertical dashed lines are guide to eye.
Current-brightness characteristics of hybrid device with structure of (60 nm)/LiF/Al.
Temperature dependent characteristics of hole-only device with structure of (100 nm, )/Al. (a) 5 wt %, (b) 7.5 wt %, and (c) 10 wt %. The lines are fits to space charge-limited current model with the Poole–Frenkel mobility.
Performance of OLEDs with or without doped layer as hole injection layer. (a) characteristics. (b) Current efficiency vs current density characteristics, inset of (b): power efficiency vs current density characteristics.
Transport parameters for -doped films.
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