XRD patterns of the (, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, and 0.3) NC samples. The vertical lines at the bottom are the standard JCPDS data of monoclinic CuO (card No.89–5898). The arrows ↓ denotes the peaks of the miscellaneous phase .
Representative XRD refinement patterns for (, 0.1, and 0.2) samples. The circle signs (○) are the experimental XRD data and the solid lines almost at the same position of each value are the calculated profile, below which is the difference between experimental and calculated data. The vertical lines at the bottom indicate the diffraction angles of allowed Bragg reflections.
The results obtained from XRD refinement of (, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) samples. (a) The actual Fe concentration and (b) the vacancy concentration.
XPS spectra of (a) and (b) for . The circle signs (○) and the solid plots are the experimental data and the simulated data/peaks, respectively, while the dashed lines are the background.
Typical (a) TEM and (b) HRTEM images of . The inset in (b) is the corresponding ED pattern.
The magnetization of ferromagnetic part of the samples (, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20) as a function of applied magnetic field, (a) at 300 K and (b) at 60 K. The insets are the zoomed in hysteresis around zero applied magnetic field.
Temperature dependence of magnetization for the (, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2) samples taken at applied magnetic field of 200 Oe.
Magnetic hysteresis loops of the sample at , 30, 50, 55, 60, 80, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 K. The inset is the magnetization of the ferromagnetic part of the sample as a function of applied magnetic field.
Temperature dependence of , , and for the sample.
Temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility , , and the difference susceptibility of sample. The inset shows the magnified curve for the ZFC data.
Experimental (triangle signs “▲”) and simulated (circle signs ○) saturation magnetization as a function of Fe doping concentration (neglecting the contribution from the vacancies) in the samples.
XRD refinement results of samples.
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