Schematic view of the anodization process in the meniscal region: (a) electrochemical cell and (b) optical control of the anodization process.
Optical microscope photographs of the aluminum anodization front in the meniscal region for different forming voltages: (a) , (b) , and (c) . Aluminum film thikness is .
The alumina films fabricated by meniscal anodization at forming voltages 100 V (right) and 120 V (left).
Maximum current density and alumina growth rate during meniscal anodization of aluminum films as a function of the forming voltage.
The temperatures measured in the anodic zone during anodization of aluminum films at different forming voltages.
Volume expansion factor and porosity of alumina fabricated by meniscal anodization of aluminum films as a function of the forming voltage.
SEM images of porous anodic alumina films formed by anodization of aluminum in the meniscal region at 70 V: (a) cross section, (b) top view, (c) A–A planar section, and (d) B–B planar section.
SEM image of porous alumina film formed by the meniscal anodization at 120 V.
Porous alumina with tilt cells formed by anodization in the meniscal region: (a) tilted cells at the angle of 7° , (b) a changing inclination of pores (the upper layer , the bottom layer ), (c) top view after pore etching for 10 min, and (d) alumina nanotubes obtained after pore etching for 20 min.
The tilt angle of alumina nanotubes vs the wafer dipping velocity.
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