Schematic of the final configuration of the cold-welded interface and the FIB cutting process
Tapping mode AFM images of (a) Au substrate ( by ) and (b) Ag substrate tip ( by ). (c) SEM image of a silver coated AFM cantilever tip. (d) Typical displacement curve. Note that the deflection of the tip is graphed on the vertical axis while the out of plane displacement of the cantilever tip is along the horizontal axis. (e) Corresponding physical description of points (A–E) on the displacement curve.
TEM images showing interfaces of as-deposited and cold-welded Ag–Au thin films.
The TEM images showing the locations nearby the cold-welded interface for doing the EELS; comparison of EELS collected from various locations across the Au–Ag cold-welded interface show there is a clear increase in both carbon and silver peaks in Position 2.
Comparison of EELS collected from various strip regions across the Au–Ag cold-welded interface.
Cold welding in the presence of dust particles. (a) Initial approach of the two surfaces to be pressure welded with the dust particle embedded on the surface of metal 2. (b) Metal elastically deforms around the dust particle.
Adhesion forces measured using the described AFM technique. Each vertical bar represents an interaction of a coated tip on a deposited substrate.
(a) A schematic representation of the macroscenario and microscenario of cold welding showing the effects of surface roughness. (b) Comparison of predicted contact lengths adjusted for surface roughness effects with the experimental results revealed by the TEM images.
Sample distribution of dust particles along an strip of the cold-welded interface.
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