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Microwave responses and general model of nanotetraneedle ZnO: Integration of interface scattering, microcurrent, dielectric relaxation, and microantenna
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10.1063/1.3295912
/content/aip/journal/jap/107/5/10.1063/1.3295912
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/107/5/10.1063/1.3295912

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic diagram of microwave response of . The inscribed sphere of the cube is the external sphere of . (a) , , , and are the reflected waves of the four needles of , respectively. is the resultant wave of needles 1 and 2. is the resultant wave of needles 3 and 4. and form the backscatter wave . (b) The schematic diagram of projection area of , where is the side length of the cube, is the average length of each needle of , and is the average diameter of each needle of at the root. (c) The relation between the induced field and microcurrent of each needle. (d) The schematic diagram of the induced dipole moment and microantenna radiation of each needle.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic diagrams of (a) the nanocomposite and (b) the electromagnetic energy attenuation at the arbitrary layer.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The experimental and calculated results for , , , and with and taken from Table II.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The four microwave responses dependent on the conductivity of : (a) microcurrent attenuation, (b) interface scattering, (c) microantenna radiation, and (d) dielectric relaxation response. Here , , , and with and taken from Table III.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The four microwave responses dependent on the needle length of : (a) interface scattering, (b) microcurrent attenuation, (c) microantenna radiation, and (d) dielectric relaxation response. Here , , and with , and taken from Table III. The inset in (b) is the magnified figure of the microcurrent attenuation dependent on the needle length of .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The four microwave responses dependent on the permittivity of : (a) dielectric relaxation response, (b) microantenna radiation, (c) microcurrent attenuation, and (d) interface scattering. Here , , , and with , , , , while and are taken from Table III.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The comparison of four principal responses. In the calculation, , , , and , which are derived from the experimental data, while and are taken from Table III.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Frequency-dependence reflectivity of calculated at different geometrical parameters. (a) The needle lengths of are with . (b) The thicknesses of are with . Here and with and taken from Table III.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Frequency-dependence reflectivity of calculated with the volume fraction for , , and with and taken from Table III.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Frequency-dependence reflectivity of calculated at different electrical parameters (a) for the conductivity and (b) for the real parts of the dielectric constant to be , , , and with . Here , , and with and taken from Table III.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Experimental results of the material parameters. Here and are the length and the heel diameter of a needle, respectively, is the density of , is the density of , is the thickness of , and is the volume fraction of (Refs. 48 and 49).

Generic image for table
Table II.

Experimental results of the electrical parameters at different frequencies. Here and are the real part of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent of , respectively, is the dielectric constant of , and and are the dielectric constant and the reflectance value of , respectively (Refs. 48 and 49).

Generic image for table
Table III.

Calculated results of the dielectric constant by the Debye equation. Here and are the optical frequency and the static dielectric constant of ZnO crystals, and the dielectric relaxation time . Due to the dielectric confinement effect, the permittivity of is larger than that of crystalline ZnO.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/107/5/10.1063/1.3295912
2010-03-02
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Microwave responses and general model of nanotetraneedle ZnO: Integration of interface scattering, microcurrent, dielectric relaxation, and microantenna
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/107/5/10.1063/1.3295912
10.1063/1.3295912
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