NP source sketch. The target position can be varied along the -axis: at , L is maximum (70 mm). A mass spectrometer can be placed in line with the source aperture.
(a) Tapping-mode AFM image of the typical nanostructure of Cu NPs deposited on a silica substrate, (b) corresponding grazing x-ray diffraction pattern, and (c) black Cu NP coating on silica sample.
Typical NP size distribution curves recorded in run condition 1 for different values of the parameter L (position of the target in the source).
Variation of the mean NP size as a function of the parameter L for two different run conditions (carrier gas flow varies).
Temperature profiles of the gas phase along the -axis of the NP source for three different run conditions (carrier gas flow and sputtering ion current vary).
Number of nuclei formed as a function of the position inside the NP source calculated via our model and Eq. (6) for process condition 1 and : (a) calculated using the effective experimental temperature profile measured in the NP source and (b) for three different theoretical temperature profiles (shown in the inset).
(Solid line) Experimental size distribution of the copper NPs for process condition 1 and , (dashed) computed size distribution for equivalent conditions in our nucleation and growth model.
Calculated size distributions for a given set of parameters (run condition 1, ) with a variable (dashed) or constant (solid) atom-cluster sticking probability per unit time . The maxima are located, respectively, at 7400 and 8500 atoms approximately.
Comparison of experimental and predicted mean NP sizes and size distribution widths (full width at half the maximum height of the distribution) in conditions 1 and 2 for various aggregation lengths L.
Process conditions. I: sputtering ion current, : argon gas flow, and pressure in NP source and chamber, respectively, and , concentration and pressure of copper vapor, respectively.
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