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Bilayer metal gate electrodes with tunable work function: Mechanism and proposed model
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10.1063/1.3326237
/content/aip/journal/jap/107/6/10.1063/1.3326237
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/107/6/10.1063/1.3326237
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Work function characteristics of gates and gates for both as-deposited and 30 min FGA conditions.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) SIMS depth profile of as-deposited gate stack. (b) SIMS depth profile of annealed gate stack. Large amounts of Ti atoms diffuse through the W layer, changing the work function to that of Ti.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Normalized SIMS depth profiles of the gate stack for the (a) as-deposited; (b) FGA conditions.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Original SIMS depth profiles of the gate stack for the (a) as-deposited and (b) FGA conditions. Ti diffusion can be clearly seen in the annealed profile, which supports the interdiffusion mechanism for the work function tuning.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Normalized SIMS depth profiles of the gate stack for the (a) as-deposited and (b) FGA conditions.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) SIMS depth profile of as-deposited gate stack. (b) SIMS depth profile of annealed gate stack, and the diffusion of Ti does not reach the metal/dielectric interface. Thus the work functions of both gate stacks are close to that of W.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Flat band voltage behaviors of gate stack and XPS compositional results from interface delamination. The four-point bending test successfully delaminates the metal/dielectric interface and Ti diffusion is verified by XPS analysis.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Annealing behavior of Ti/W gates with 3, 6, and 20 nm of W at . After an initial 10 min of annealing, the flat-band voltages stabilize.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

SIMS depth profiles of Ti/W (6 nm) gates: (a) as-deposited, (b) after 30 min anneal, (c) after 4 h anneal, and (d)after 20 h anneal. Results of the depth profiles indicate the slow-down of diffusion after an initial anneal, agreeing with the electrical measurement of flat-band voltages.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Diffusion length of Ti/W (6 nm) gates. Compared with a constant-diffusivity model, the experimental results demonstrate that the diffusion length remains the same after an initial anneal.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/107/6/10.1063/1.3326237
2010-03-29
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Bilayer metal gate electrodes with tunable work function: Mechanism and proposed model
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/107/6/10.1063/1.3326237
10.1063/1.3326237
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