XRD patterns for pure and nano- added . Peaks of are marked with sign and that of MgO phase are marked with sign.
(a) Variation in the lattice parameters and with addition level. (b) SEM image for the nanoparticles used in this study (the scale bar is 20 nm). (c) Field cooled and ZFC magnetization as a function of temperature (the applied field was 2 mT). Data are for pure and nano- added polycrystalline.
Representative AFM scans for pure [(a) and (b)] and nano- added (2 wt %) [(c) and (d)] polycrystalline samples in large and small scan areas.
Magnetization curves at for pure and nano- added samples (a) Magnetic field dependence of the critical current density at for pure and nano- added samples using (b) normal scale and (c) semilog scale.
Variations in the pinning force density with applied magnetic field (a) and the reduced pinning force with the reduced field at 20 K for all samples.
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