Geometric structures of (a) an armchair and (b) zigzag ribbon.
Band structures of the [(a)-(c)] and the (d) armchair ribbons under spatially modulated electric fields. , , and represent the periodic length, the phase shift, and the strength of the modulated electric field, respectively. The Fermi level is set to zero.
The band structure of the zigzag ribbon in the presence of a modulated electric field.
The carrier densities of energy bands of the armchair ribbon at with or without a modulated electric field.
The carrier densities of the partial flat band of the zigzag ribbon at and with or without a modulated electric field.
The DOS of the and the armchair ribbons in a modulated electric fields.
DOS of the zigzag ribbon under modulated electric fields.
The -dependent energy gap is shown for the armchair ribbon [(a)-(b)] and the zigzag ribbon (c) at different and different . The inset in (b) shows the dependence of the energy gap on at and .
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