Schematics of (a) a nanorod with a spherical growth front and (b) a sinusoidal surface roughness with period and amplitude , causing shadowing (gray) of the deposition flux impinging from an angle . Cross-sectional (c) SEM and (d) TEM micrographs of Cr rods grown by GLAD with continuous substrate rotation at and , respectively, showing the rod shape and the roughness on the growth front, respectively.
Predicted rod broadening rate due to self-shadowing in a 2D qualitative model, for spherical growth fronts with roughness with period and amplitudes and 5. The dotted curve illustrates what is qualitatively expected for a smooth-to-rough transition at , as expected for a 2D to 3D island transition.
Growth exponent for Al, Cr, Nb, and Ta GLAD nanorods as a function of the homologous deposition temperature . The inset shows the Boltzmann–Sigmoidal transfer function which describes the transition from 2D to 3D island growth, used to fit the data with Eqs. (9) and (11) .
Roughness period as a function of homologous deposition temperature obtained from cross-sectional TEM analyses of Cr and Nb nanorod growth fronts.
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