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Power law scaling during physical vapor deposition under extreme shadowing conditions
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10.1063/1.3385389
/content/aip/journal/jap/107/8/10.1063/1.3385389
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/107/8/10.1063/1.3385389
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematics of (a) a nanorod with a spherical growth front and (b) a sinusoidal surface roughness with period and amplitude , causing shadowing (gray) of the deposition flux impinging from an angle . Cross-sectional (c) SEM and (d) TEM micrographs of Cr rods grown by GLAD with continuous substrate rotation at and , respectively, showing the rod shape and the roughness on the growth front, respectively.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Predicted rod broadening rate due to self-shadowing in a 2D qualitative model, for spherical growth fronts with roughness with period and amplitudes and 5. The dotted curve illustrates what is qualitatively expected for a smooth-to-rough transition at , as expected for a 2D to 3D island transition.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Prefactor and (b) growth exponent vs average island separation , obtained by fitting experimental data from Cr, Nb, and Ta GLAD nanorods grown at homologous temperatures with Eq. (1) . The solid lines are obtained by data fitting, using Eqs. (8) and (9) , respectively.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Divergence exponent vs height obtained by fitting vs data with Eq. (2) , for Al, Cr, Nb, and Ta GLAD nanorods. The dashed lines are obtained by separate fitting in the low temperature and high temperature regimes, using Eq. (7) .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Growth exponent for Al, Cr, Nb, and Ta GLAD nanorods as a function of the homologous deposition temperature . The inset shows the Boltzmann–Sigmoidal transfer function which describes the transition from 2D to 3D island growth, used to fit the data with Eqs. (9) and (11) .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Roughness period as a function of homologous deposition temperature obtained from cross-sectional TEM analyses of Cr and Nb nanorod growth fronts.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/107/8/10.1063/1.3385389
2010-04-19
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Power law scaling during physical vapor deposition under extreme shadowing conditions
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/107/8/10.1063/1.3385389
10.1063/1.3385389
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