banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Power law scaling during physical vapor deposition under extreme shadowing conditions
Rent this article for
View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematics of (a) a nanorod with a spherical growth front and (b) a sinusoidal surface roughness with period and amplitude , causing shadowing (gray) of the deposition flux impinging from an angle . Cross-sectional (c) SEM and (d) TEM micrographs of Cr rods grown by GLAD with continuous substrate rotation at and , respectively, showing the rod shape and the roughness on the growth front, respectively.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Predicted rod broadening rate due to self-shadowing in a 2D qualitative model, for spherical growth fronts with roughness with period and amplitudes and 5. The dotted curve illustrates what is qualitatively expected for a smooth-to-rough transition at , as expected for a 2D to 3D island transition.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Prefactor and (b) growth exponent vs average island separation , obtained by fitting experimental data from Cr, Nb, and Ta GLAD nanorods grown at homologous temperatures with Eq. (1) . The solid lines are obtained by data fitting, using Eqs. (8) and (9) , respectively.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Divergence exponent vs height obtained by fitting vs data with Eq. (2) , for Al, Cr, Nb, and Ta GLAD nanorods. The dashed lines are obtained by separate fitting in the low temperature and high temperature regimes, using Eq. (7) .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Growth exponent for Al, Cr, Nb, and Ta GLAD nanorods as a function of the homologous deposition temperature . The inset shows the Boltzmann–Sigmoidal transfer function which describes the transition from 2D to 3D island growth, used to fit the data with Eqs. (9) and (11) .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Roughness period as a function of homologous deposition temperature obtained from cross-sectional TEM analyses of Cr and Nb nanorod growth fronts.


Article metrics loading...


Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Power law scaling during physical vapor deposition under extreme shadowing conditions