Lifetime distributions for down-flow EM in single link devices.
SEM images of (a) an early failure void and (b) a late failure void for down-flow EM.
Lifetime distributions for up-flow EM in single link devices.
SEM images of (a) an early failure void and (b) a late failure void for up-flow EM.
Building blocks for large-scale EM testing: (a) basic unit of 10 interconnects in parallel and (b) interconnect array formed of basic units in series.
Schematic of the WSB arrangement for large-scale EM testing.
The resistance imbalance as a function of time for down-flow testing at and a current density of (a) and (b) .
Detailed view of selected resistance imbalances as a function of time. Arrows indicate the first distinctive steps.
Lifetime distributions for down-flow WSB devices and the corresponding single link samples at .
Temperature change as a function of the applied current density for Joule heat analysis in down-flow samples.
Deconvoluted lifetime data for down-flow WSB devices and the corresponding single link data at .
Lifetime distributions of down-flow WSB devices as function of temperature.
Deconvoluted lifetime data for down-flow WSB devices and single link data.
Arrhenius plots for down-flow WSB structures and standard single link samples indicating different activation energies.
Deconvoluted lifetime data for up-flow WSB devices and the corresponding single link data.
Arrhenius plots for early and late failure modes of up-flow standard single link samples.
Lifetime distributions for up-flow and down-flow WSBs and single link devices at and .
Calculation of conditional and unconditional reliabilities for ten WSB devices tested at using .
Extrapolation to use temperatures at using measured activation energy values for up- and down-flow EM.
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