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Large-scale statistical analysis of early failures in Cu electromigration, Part I: Dominating mechanisms
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10.1063/1.3374701
/content/aip/journal/jap/108/1/10.1063/1.3374701
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/108/1/10.1063/1.3374701

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Lifetime distributions for down-flow EM in single link devices.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

SEM images of (a) an early failure void and (b) a late failure void for down-flow EM.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Lifetime distributions for up-flow EM in single link devices.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

SEM images of (a) an early failure void and (b) a late failure void for up-flow EM.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Building blocks for large-scale EM testing: (a) basic unit of 10 interconnects in parallel and (b) interconnect array formed of basic units in series.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Schematic of the WSB arrangement for large-scale EM testing.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The resistance imbalance as a function of time for down-flow testing at and a current density of (a) and (b) .

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Detailed view of selected resistance imbalances as a function of time. Arrows indicate the first distinctive steps.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Lifetime distributions for down-flow WSB devices and the corresponding single link samples at .

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Temperature change as a function of the applied current density for Joule heat analysis in down-flow samples.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Deconvoluted lifetime data for down-flow WSB devices and the corresponding single link data at .

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Lifetime distributions of down-flow WSB devices as function of temperature.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Deconvoluted lifetime data for down-flow WSB devices and single link data.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Arrhenius plots for down-flow WSB structures and standard single link samples indicating different activation energies.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Deconvoluted lifetime data for up-flow WSB devices and the corresponding single link data.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Arrhenius plots for early and late failure modes of up-flow standard single link samples.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Lifetime distributions for up-flow and down-flow WSBs and single link devices at and .

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Calculation of conditional and unconditional reliabilities for ten WSB devices tested at using .

Generic image for table
Table II.

Extrapolation to use temperatures at using measured activation energy values for up- and down-flow EM.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/108/1/10.1063/1.3374701
2010-07-13
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Large-scale statistical analysis of early failures in Cu electromigration, Part I: Dominating mechanisms
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/108/1/10.1063/1.3374701
10.1063/1.3374701
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