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Large-scale statistical analysis of early failures in Cu electromigration, Part II: Scaling behavior and short-length effects
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10.1063/1.3374702
/content/aip/journal/jap/108/1/10.1063/1.3374702
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/108/1/10.1063/1.3374702

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

TEM images of (a) 90 nm and (b) 65 nm technology interconnects.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Lifetime distributions for down-flow WSB devices for 90 and 65 nm technologies at , (a) raw data and (b) deconvoluted data.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Arrhenius plots for 90, 65, and 45 nm WSB data.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Scaling behavior of EM early failure lifetimes across 90, 65, and 45 nm technologies. The parameter represents the via diameter and the line height.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Slit-shaped void at the top of an M1 line, connected to contacts. This interconnect did not fail, however, the same void could have lead to failure for the V1/M1 down-flow case.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Trend of critical current density-length products, , as a function of dielectric. With mechanically weaker films, the values decrease. The encircled area encompasses TEOS/FTEOS-based integrations. The 130 nm-hybrid integration uses FTEOS at the via level and SiCOH at the trench level (red datapoints from [4], single asterisk [6], double asterisk [5]).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Down-flow WSB EM failure distributions for eleven current density conditions between 0.5 and . The two lowest current density conditions show a pronounced increase in the lognormal sigma.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Inverse median lifetimes as a function of in the lower current density regime.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Inverse median lifetimes as a function of in the entire current density regime tested, with various current density exponent fits. The case provides the best fit.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Sample size across 90, 65, and 45 nm technology nodes. All samples from part I and part II of this publication are included here.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/108/1/10.1063/1.3374702
2010-07-13
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Large-scale statistical analysis of early failures in Cu electromigration, Part II: Scaling behavior and short-length effects
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/108/1/10.1063/1.3374702
10.1063/1.3374702
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