XRD patterns of thin film before and after the annealing treatment. The reference pattern of ZnO thin film is also plotted as comparison.
Magnetization vs magnetic-field curve recorded at room temperature for film before and after the annealing treatment. The inset is curve of the annealed film in a magnetic field of 5 kOe.
(a) -edge EXAFS functions for film before and after the annealing treatment. The reference curves of Co, CoO, and powders, and the -edge function for ZnO film are also shown. (b) Their Fourier transforms (solid line). The empty circles in (b) show the fitting results.
Comparison between experimental XANES spectra of film before and after the annealing treatment and the calculated XANES spectra of following three model structures: substitutional , plus O vacancy , and plus Zn interstitial .
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