(a) XRD patterns of AZO films as a function of the doping level. (i)–(ix) stand for pure ZnO to a maximum of AZO, with an increment of of Al, respectively, (b) shows the crystallite size of Al:ZnO films calculated using Scherrer’ equation.
[(a)–(c)] SEM micrographs of AZO thin films with different heat ramping during drying of the gel, (a) SHR, (b) MHR, (c) FHR, respectively, (d) cross sectional SEM image of a sample prepared with MHR.
[(a) and (b)] High resolution bright field TEM images of AZO films.
TEM images of AZO films with selected area EDX measurement (the EDX result is shown as inset in each image). (a) and 4(b) are taken on and (c) and (d) on doped ZnO films. In case of (a) and (c) deliberately an area on single particle is chosen; in case of (b) and (d) intentionally areas with multiple particles and many grain boundaries are selected.
Electrical resistivity variation in Al:ZnO films prepared with MHR preheat treatment, as a function of doping level.
(a) Optical transmission spectra of undoped and doped ZnO films and (b) plots of against photon energy . The energy gap was obtained by extrapolating the linear part.
IR spectroscopy measurement of pure and AZO thin films showing the resonance absorption of the plasma frequency for the doped ones.
Al concentration obtained from the TEM-EDX measurement for the 2 and AZO films.
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