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Elastic strain and dopant activation in ion implanted strained Si nanowires
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

SIMS profiles of 25 nm SSOI layers implanted with : as-implanted (squares) and spike annealed (circles) superposed on a XTEM image of the SSOI wafer.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

SEM image of (a) a dense array of patterned SSOI NWs used for the Raman measurements and (b) TLM structure used for the electrical characterization of the doped NWs.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Illustration of the processing sequence and the following four cases studied: (a) implanted and annealed biaxially tensile layers of SSOI; (b) patterned unimplanted SSOI layers; (c) NWs patterned on implanted and annealed SSOI layers, and (d) patterned NWs followed by implantation and annealing.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) Profiles of vacancy distribution in 25 nm SSOI layer after ion implantation of (squares), (circles), and (triangles). The black dashed line represents the amorphization threshold. The inset shows the thickness of the seed layer vs the implantation dose. (b) Raman spectra of unimplanted and as-implanted SSOI layers indicating a decrease in the strained Si signal and an increase in the amorphous Si signal with the implantation dose.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) Raman spectra of SSOI layers unimplanted (circles) and after implantation and spike annealing (squares); (b) the XTEM image of this sample shows a defect free recrystallization even if only 6 nm seed layer is available.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Raman spectra of the SSOI layer and NWs of different widths. The strained Si peak shift toward to cubic Si peak as the width of the NW decreases; (b) the relaxation as function of NW width for different SSOI layer thicknesses. The relaxation is 100% for thick layer and decreases with the thickness of the SSOI layer.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Raman spectra of (a) 75 nm narrow NWs unimplanted and implanted to and (b) comparison of doped SSOI layer and doped 75 nm narrow NWs indicating strain relaxation after NWs patterning.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Current-voltage (I-V) measurements for a 75 nm narrow and long NWs implanted at different doses.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Resistivity of NWs fabricated on 25 nm SSOI doped layers as a function of implantation dose. The layer resistivity is added for comparison.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

XTEM image of a NW implanted to and spike annealing showing the formation of a single crystal core and polygrains at the side edges of the NW.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Sum of strain components of directly doped NWs as a function of NWs width for different implantation doses. The biaxial strain is indicated by the dashed line.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(a) The deconvoluted strained Si signal from the Raman spectra of 35 nm NWs corresponding to the as-patterned (square) and implanted to spike annealed (circles) NWs. The signal from biaxial SSOI layer (triangles) and the cubic Si reference (dashed line) are added for comparison; (b) Raman spectra of a 75 nm wide NW recrystallized after ion implantation to and spike annealing.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Comparison of Si NWs resistivity as a function of the implantation dose. Two types of doped NWs are presented: patterned on doped layers (full symbols) and implanted after patterning (empty symbols).


Generic image for table
Table I.

Carrier mobility, concentration and resistivity of doped for 25 nm SSOI layers for different implantation doses and spike annealing.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Estimated dopant concentration in Si NWs as a function of the implantation dose calculated from the NW resistivity assuming equivalent mobility as in the SSOI layer.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Elastic strain and dopant activation in ion implanted strained Si nanowires