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Bunch characteristics of an electron beam generated by a diamond secondary emitter amplifier
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Penetration range of multikiloelectron volt electrons into diamond calculated using the Bethe model and compared to a common power law representation. Numbers shown are from a least-squares fitting (line) of the Bethe data (circles).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

A comparison of the various yield estimates with the experimental data of Yater and Shih (Ref. 44 ). “Exp” refers to Eq. (9) . “Power” refers to using Eq. (9) with the value of determined by the Bethe approximation and “ ” refers to a scaling to bring the Power line into agreement with the experimental data.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

A comparison of the transmission (red: no high energy tail) and reflection (blue: high energy tail present) distributions for secondaries from a diamond layer. Observe the peaks overlap well, but that a sizeable tail exists for the reflection case, as the electrons are born closer to the surface and therefore do not endure as many scattering events before crossing into vacuum.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The scattering rates and overall scattering rate (black) for the various processes of optical emission and absorption, acoustic, neutral, and ionized impurities. The “Neutral” line is not visible in the range shown. Top: . Bottom: .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Evolution of the secondaries produced by one incident primary for various times of 0.05, 0.27, 1.26, 5.62, and 25 ps. A log scale in the direction is shown on the left graph and a linear scale on the right. The temperature was 300 K and the doping concentration was .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Same as Fig. 5 , but for a doping concentration of .

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Same as Fig. 6 , but for a temperature of 77 K.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Same as Fig. 7 , but for a temperature of 500 K.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Number of electrons lost to the back contact as a function of time for various internal fields. At high fields, the bunch is swept away quickly before it expands too greatly. Conversely, low fields entail greater losses to the back contact and (though not considered herein) other mechanisms such as recombination.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

The radius of the charge bunch and the location of the center of charge as a function of time for internal fields of 1 MV/m (blue circles) and 10 MV/m (red squares).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Comparison of the calculated mobility from the Monte Carlo simulation (black dots) to its least-squares parameterization (red line) and the values suggested by Deferme, et al. (Ref. 67 , dashed line).

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

A comparison of experimental data of transmission yield scaled to the 20 keV value to the theory in which recombination was neglected, showing that in the zero field experiment, recombination, and other loss mechanisms can significantly affect the yield. Analysis suggests the time scale associated with recombination losses is on the order of 45 ps.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Schematic of the uniform sphere model of an electron bunch emerging from diamond into vacuum, showing the meaning of and .

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Emitted charge as a function of time calculated using Monte Carlo (black dots) compared to its least-squares fitting (red line) using the tanh-approximation. Parameters shown are for a 3 keV incident beam (see text for parameters associated with a 13.75 keV incident beam).

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

The shape of the emitted bunch as a function of time for various ratios between the pulse length and the characteristic time .

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Relationship between flake length and characteristic rise/fall time assuming that the characteristic time for an flake is 8.9 ps. Black dots are for values of being powers of 2. The vertical gray line is the depletion width for 10 MV/m for boron concentrations of .


Generic image for table
Table I.

Scattering rate terms and values for diamond. Values of parameters used in the calculation of the relaxation times for diamond. For common terms across the scattering rates, representative values are given.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Bunch characteristics of an electron beam generated by a diamond secondary emitter amplifier