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Pyroelectric response of ferroelectric nanowires: Size effect and electric energy harvesting
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Generation of the pyroelectric charge in the electrodes around a ferroelectric nanorod with inhomogeneous spontaneous polarization under its temperature variation on . The lower plot schematically shows the charge profile across the rod at time moments and . (b) Pyroelectric electromotive force (EMF) and current generation by ferroelectric nanostructures: a single polarized rod and nanowires vertically aligned array in contact with the electrode plates. (c) Equivalent circuit of operating pyroelectric electromotive force: is the effective capacitance of the capacitor, is the diode (if any appeared due to the possible rectification effect at the ferroelectric-semiconductor-electrode interface), is the external load impedance, at that for small internal resistance of current source.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Pyroelectric coefficient vs nanowire radius for different surface tension coefficients and fixed length [curves 1–3 in plot (b)]; different length and fixed surface tension coefficients [curves 1–4 in plot (a)]. (c) Averaged pyroelectric coefficient vs the average radius for different relative halfwidth , 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 (curves 0–4) of the size distribution function shown in plot (d). Surface tension coefficient , length . Horizontal lines indicate of bulk material . Material parameters of : , , , , , room temperature , and gradient term coefficient .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Pyroelectric current [(a) and (b)] and voltage [(c) and (d)] vs time for different nanowire radius and fixed fraction of nanowires [plots (a) and (c)]; different fraction of nanowires , , , 0.45 and fixed radius [plots (b) and (d)], small load resistance [(a) and (b)] and high resistance [(c) and (d)]. Central inset shows the temperature variation and its conversion into pyroelectric response. Wires length , electrode area , temperature variation amplitude , relaxation time , , , . Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

[(a) and (b)] Efficiency of the power converter vs temperature and wire radius for parameters , , , and . (a) Contour map of values in coordinates temperature-thickness. Different curves correspond to the fixed efficiency values 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 50%. (b) Efficiency vs radius for different temperatures (figures near the curves). (c) The current power spectrum at . Other parameters are the same as in Figs. 2 and 3(a).


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Pyroelectric response of ferroelectric nanowires: Size effect and electric energy harvesting