Room temperature hysteresis loop of (a) a 115 nm Mn:ZnO film and (b) a 60 nm pure ZnO film. The linear diamagnetic background was subtracted from the SQUID data. The inset in (a) shows the background-corrected loop at a temperature of 2 K.
Saturation magnetization at a magnetic field of 0.4 T as a function of temperature as derived from background-corrected SQUID data for pure ZnO (60 nm) and Mn:ZnO (115 nm). The dotted line is a guide to the eye.
Experimental (solid lines) XAS and XMCD spectra (in TEY mode) at 5 T and 2 K at the edge for 115 nm, Mn:ZnO. Calculated XAS (dashed line) and XMCD (dashed dotted line) for a configuration in tetrahedral symmetry .
Normalized edge XMCD (in TEY mode) vs applied magnetic field for various temperatures (115 nm Mn:ZnO film). The 2 K data are fitted with a Brillouin function, indicating purely paramagnetic behavior of the Mn dopant. The inset shows the normalized XMCD at the edge at 5 T vs temperature fitted with a modified Curie–Weiss law, also indicating paramagnetic behavior.
Room temperature ferromagnetic saturation magnetization plotted vs the relative change in the out of plane (-axis) lattice parameter for thin films of Mn:ZnO (left) and ZnO (right) on STO (011) substrates. The dashed lines are guides to the eye.
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