A 10-turn transformer with a plasma (EW) primary winding and a copper secondary winding. A peak output voltage of 75 kV was induced from an input of 40 kV.
A family of voltage waveforms, using 5 m of 0.27 mm enameled copper wire, exploded at voltages of 15 to 60 kV, producing AEFs of 3 to 12 kV/m (Ref. 8. “A” is the insufficient AEF region, “B” is the restrike region, and “C” is the excessive AEF region.
A schematic of the experimental setup. denotes the water resistor.
A long-exposure photograph of an EW with an AEF well below the AEF restrike region lower bound.
A long-exposure photograph of an EW with an AEF below the restrike region. The wire was 3 m of 0.2 mm diameter wire, exploded at 15 kV dc (5 kV/m).
Voltage traces of nonrestriking EWs with AEFs from 4.1 to 5.8 kV/m. The wires were 3 m lengths of 0.3 mm diameter wire.
Three example images of the calculation method for finding the effective length of the plasma column. The white pattern at the tops of the images indicates where plasma beads were detected. Note that the images have been compressed horizontally.
The total plasma formed as a percentage of wire length is positively correlated with AEF. The circle denotes the lowest AEF restrike, where the plasma length equals the wire length.
Voltage and light intensity traces recorded during a nonrestriking EW using 7 m of 0.2 mm enameled wire exploded at 32 kV (4.6 kV/m).
A short-exposure photograph captured plasma beads microseconds before restrike. Due to the sliding shutter mechanism in the camera, time increases from bottom to top in the photograph. Restrike illuminates the laboratory at the top of the photograph. The wire was 9 m of 0.2 mm diameter enameled wire. Restrike occurred with 40 kV applied, resulting in an AEF of 4.4 kV/m.
Consecutive frames from high speed camera footage of a 5 m long, 0.3 mm diameter wire exploded at 30 kV dc (6 kV/m). The camera’s speed was 10 240 frames/s.
Voltage and relative emitted light intensity traces for a restriking EW. The wire was 3 m of 0.2 mm wire with 20 kV applied.
Long-exposure photographs excessive AEF nonrestriking EWs.
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