Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties of individual PZT and TDF disks: (a) ferroelectric hysteresis loop, (b) PFM phase image of PZT disk, (c) magnetic hysteresis loops, and (d) MFM phase image of TDF disk.
The magnetic response of TDF disk under in-plane magnetic fields from VFM: (a) the strain measured parallel and (b) perpendicular to the applied magnetic field, (c) the MFM image of the TDF disk after magnetized by the electromagnet under 7000 Oe (without VFM field applied), and (d) the MFM image of the TDF disk under an in-plane VFM field of 2000 Oe applied perpendicular to the original magnetization direction. The direction of magnetic field is indicated by the arrow.
Macroscopic ME response of the bilayer composite: normal strain measured on the surface of the bilayer composite (a) parallel and (b) perpendicular to the applied VFM field, and (c) ME voltage coefficients as a function of dc magnetic bias measured using ac magnetic field of 1 Oe and 1 kHz.
Local ME responses of the bilayer composite under a VFM magnetic field: (a) SPM topography, (b) PFM amplitude image in the absence of external magnetic field, (c) PFM amplitude under 2000 Oe, and (d) PFM amplitude under −2000 Oe, the direction of magnetic field is indicated by arrow.
Local ME responses of the bilayer composite under an external electric field: (a) SPM topography, (b) MFM phase image in the absence of electric field, (c) MFM phase image under 850 V, and (d) MFM phase image under 1530 V.
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