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Detecting excess ionizing radiation by electromagnetic breakdown of air
4.G. Nusinovich, V. Granatstein, T. Antonsen, Jr., R. Pu, O. Sinitsyn, J. Rodgers, A. Mohamed, J. Silverman, M. Al-Sheikhly, and Y. Dimant, IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, Monterey, CA, May 18–20, 2010, IVEC 2010 Book of Abstracts (IEEE cat. no. CFP10VAM-ART), pp. 197–198.
5.A. D. McDonald, Microwave Breakdown in Gases (Wiley, New York, 1966), p. 162.
6.A. V. Gurevich, N. D. Borisov, and G. M. Milikh, Artificially Ionized Regions in the Atmosphere (Gordon and Breach, Reading, England, 1997).
10.M. Messaad and M. Tioursi, Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences 11, 169 (2003).
11.A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).
12.W. Lawson, R. L. Ives, M. Mizuhara, J. M. Nelson, and M. E. Read, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 29, 545 (2001). This amplifier has been designed for an output power of 10 MW and has been constructed; it is awaiting high voltage testing. We estimate an output power of only 1.5 MW since the output power achieved in a previous second harmonic GKL was 32 MW at 19.7 GHz (Ref. 12) and peak power scaling as is assumed.
14.G. Nusinovich, R. Pu, T. Antonsen, Jr., O. Sinisyn, J. Rodgers, A. Mohamed, J. Silverman, M. Al-Sheikhly, Y. Dimant, G. Milikh, M. Y. Glyavin, A. Luchinin, E. Kopelovich, and V. Granatstein, “Development of THz-range gyrotrons for detection of concealed radioactive materials,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (to be published), special issue on gyrotrons. The gyrotron oscillator described in Refs. 4 and 14 has design output power of 300 kW and efficiency about 30%; this power and efficiency are a factor of 3 above those achieved in gyrotron oscillator experiments described in Ref. 15. An experimental program to realize the enhanced performance is underway at the University of Maryland. In the present paper, an output power of 200 kW is assumed.
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