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An explanation for laser-induced spallation effect in films: Altered phase evolution route caused by hydrogen doping
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

3D images of irradiated spots on nonhydrogenated [(a), (c), and (e)] and [(b), (d), and (f)] at the energy fluences of [(a) and (b)], [(c) and (d)], and [(e) and (f)], respectively.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

SEM images of laser irradiated spot (, one shot) on (a) nonhydrogenated and (b) films. The insets show the magnified images of treated regions. The arrows in (b) show the grooves forming around the spot periphery on .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Micro-Raman spectra of laser irradiated spot (, one shot) on nonhydrogenated and films.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) FWHM of peak, (b) peak position, and (c) ratio for the nonhydrogenated and after deposition, annealing at different temperatures and irradiated by laser pulse. Annealing temperature is divided into three regions: (i) RT to , (ii) 300 to , and (iii) above . The rightmost data are obtained from the laser irradiated spot and linked to annealing data by dashed lines.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

SEM images of cross sectional views of the coating: (a)as-deposited, annealed at (b) , (c) , and (d) , respectively.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The variations in film hardness and elastic modulus of as a function of annealing temperatures.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Temperature distribution in nonhydrogenated and films at the end of laser pulse along: (a) radial direction on film surface and (b) vertical direction at the center of the laser spot.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Schematic of mechanisms for laser-induced: (a) spallation on and (b) swelling on nonhydrogenated . The microstructures for as-deposited films as well as the modified region are provided. The snapshot pictures illustrate the film temperature variation and microstructure evolution process during the laser pulse. The white arrows indicate the directions of modification induced stress.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

The cross sectional image of periphery around an irradiated spot on .

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Temperature distribution in film along the depth direction. The upright and downright insets show the surface profile and the SEM images of a laser irradiated spot, respectively.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Thermophysical constants of , nonhydrogenated , and Si at different temperatures.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: An explanation for laser-induced spallation effect in a-C:H films: Altered phase evolution route caused by hydrogen doping