(Color online) Schematic behavior of -type ferroelectrics undergoing a phase transition below the Curie temperature. The letters A and B indicate metal ions with resp. valence electrons. In the ferroelectric phase, the unit cell becomes tetragonal with asymmetric distributed electric charges causing spontaneous polarization P 0. The six variants of the ferroelectric phase are characterized by the polarization vectors.
(Color online) Design and dimensions of the nano-harvester. The 2-dimensional view shows the electric field caused by an electric potential difference between the top electrode and substrate, indicated by arrows within the ferroelectric.
(Color online) Variation of the domain topology due to uniaxial mechanical deformation of the substrate. The interface strain in the varies from a to c. The evolution of polarization is indicated by colors and arrows. Note, the electrodes are grounded and the deformation is exaggerated.
(Color online) Hysteresis loops resulting from a cyclic interfacial strain in the longitudinal direction. Points a to c correspond to the states a–c in Fig. 3. The outer loop results from an increased range of between 0.5 and − 0.35.
(Color online) Design and dimensions of the L-shaped nano-generator.
(Color online) States of the domain topology during cyclic variation of interfacial strain in the y direction. Polarization is depicted by colors and arrows. For clarity, the mechanical deformation is exaggerated.
(Color online) Hysteresis loops resulting from a cyclic interfacial strain in the y direction. Points a to g correspond to states a-g in Fig. 6. The outer hysteresis loop results from an increased strain range between 0.5 and − 0.3.
(Color online) Adhering the substrate onto a prestressed base and releasing the prestress of the base after the drying time leads to a predictable modification of the interface strain.
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