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Hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide containing a microcrystalline silicon phase and usage as an intermediate reflector in thin-film silicon solar cells
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10.1063/1.3592208
/content/aip/journal/jap/109/11/10.1063/1.3592208
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/109/11/10.1063/1.3592208

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

A schematic drawing of the a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem solar cell withSiOx:H intermediate reflector.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) The normalized Raman intensity as a function of the stokes shift for a μc-SiOx:H layer (compact line). The spectra of the μc-SiOx:H layer is deconvoluted in an a-SiOx:H peak (dashed line) and a μc-Si:H peak (dotted line) to calculate the crystalline volume fraction.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) The deposition rate (r D) vs the CO2/SiH4-ratio (r CO2 ). The SiH4-flow and the H2-flow used are indicated in sccm in the legend as H2-dil. The lines are a guide to the eye.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) The oxygen concentration [O] as a function of the r CO2 . The SiH4-flow and the H2-flow used are indicated in sccm in the legend as H2-dil. The filled symbols stand for the samples with a seed layer and the open symbols represent the samples without seed layer. The [O] of SiO2 is shown for comparison (dashed line). The line is a guide to the eye.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) The Raman intensity ratio Ic as a function of the r CO2 for layers with (filled symbols) and without seed layer (open symbols). The SiH4-flow and the H2-flow used are indicated in sccm in the legend as H2-dil. The dashed lines are a guide to the eye for the films without seed layer. The compact lines are a guide to the eye for the films with see layer.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) (a) The Raman intensity ratio Ic in dependence of the r CO2 . (b) The conductivity σ vs the r CO2 . The lower IR conductivity limit (σ-IR limit) is indicated (dashed line). The SiH4-flow and the H2-flow used are indicated in sccm in the legend as H2-dil. The lines are a guide to the eye.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) The conductivity vs the Raman intensity ratio for different hydrogen dilution series as indicated in the legend. The influence of the hydrogen dilution on the σ/Ic -dependence can be seen by the lines as guide to the eye for the different hydrogen dilutions. The dotted line is the guide to the eye for the 1:1000 hydrogen dilution series. The dashed line is the guide to the eye for the 1:500 hydrogen dilution series and the compact line for the other hydrogen dilution series.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) The bandgap vs the r CO2 for films deposited using different hydrogen dilutions. The SiH4-flow and the H2-flow used are indicated in sccm in the legend as H2-dil. The dotted line is a guide to the eye for the 2:500 hydrogen dilution series and the solid line for the other hydrogen dilution series.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) The E 04 vs the Ic . The SiH4-flow and the H2-flow used are indicated in sccm in the legend as H2-dil. The dotted line is the guide to the eye for the 1:1000 hydrogen dilution series. The dashed line is the guide to the eye for the 1:500 hydrogen dilution series and the compact line for the other hydrogen dilution series.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) The E 04 as a function of the r CO2 for layers with (filled symbols) and without seed layer (open symbols). The SiH4-flow and the H2-flow used are indicated in sccm in the legend as H2-dil. The E 04 as function of the oxygen content for amorphous silicon oxide films (a-SiOx:H<n>) from literature (Ref. 30) are shown for comparison.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) The refractive index n vs the r CO2 for films using different hydrogen dilutions. The n(SiO2) is shown for comparison (dashed line). The SiH4-flow and the H2-flow used are indicated in sccm in the legend as H2-dil. The dotted line is the guide to the eye for the 1:500 hydrogen dilution series and the compact line for the other hydrogen dilution series.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) The electrical conductivity σ for μc-SiOx:H films without seed layer with different hydrogen dilutions as given in the caption as a function of the refractive index n (a) and the bandgap E 04 (b), respectively. The SiH4-flow and the H2-flow used are indicated in sccm in the legend as H2-dil. The characteristics of amorphous silicon oxide films (a- SiOx:H<n>) from literature (Ref. 30) are shown for comparison. In both graphs the calculated lower conductivity limit σ(IR)-limit for the use as intermediate reflector is indicated as dotted line. The dashed line is a guide to the eye for the literature values and the solid line is a guide to the eye for the other films.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(Color online) The fill factor of the tandem solar cells vs the r CO2 for the different hydrogen dilutions applied during intermediate reflector deposition. The SiH4-flow and the H2-flow used are indicated in sccm in the legend as H2-dil. The dotted line represents the fill factor of a tandem solar cell without intermediate reflector. The lines are a guide to the eye.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

(Color online) (a) The quantum efficiency QE and (b) the reflection for a cell with intermediate reflector are shown as a compact line and for a cell without intermediate reflector as a dotted line.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

(Color online) The current density for the component solar cells calculated from the quantum efficiencies vs the r CO2 for different hydrogen dilutions. The SiH4-flow and the H2-flow used are indicated in sccm in the legend as H2-dil. The current density for the a-Si:H top solar cell, for the μc-Si:H bottom cell and sum of the individual cells are shown in (a), (b) and (c), respectively. The lines are a guide to the eye.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

(Color online) The short circuit current densities calculated from the quantum efficiency for top cells (filled symbols) and bottom cells (open symbols). The circles indicate the cells with intermediate reflector, the triangles the cells without intermediate reflector. The dashed lines are a guide to the eye for the cells without IR and the solid lines are for the cells with IR.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Overview of the flow rates for the SiOx films and the corresponding symbols used in the figures.

Generic image for table
Table II.

The solar cell parameters of the a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem solar cells with and without intermediate reflector.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/109/11/10.1063/1.3592208
2011-06-13
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide containing a microcrystalline silicon phase and usage as an intermediate reflector in thin-film silicon solar cells
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/109/11/10.1063/1.3592208
10.1063/1.3592208
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