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Synthesis, characterization and ferroelectric properties of lead-free K0.5Na0.5NbO3 nanotube arrays
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

XRD patterns of the KNN nanotube arrays and KNN powders derived from the same sol calcined at 700 °C.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

SEM images of the KNN nanotubes after dissolving AAO template incompletely. (a) top view in low and high magnification (inset, the bar is 1 μm); (b) cross-section view; (c) EDX spectrum of the KNN nanotubes, inset: the atomic ratio of products.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a)–(c) TEM images and SAED pattern [inset of Fig. 3(a)] of KNN nanotubes after completely dissolving AAO template; (d) HRTEM image of the KNN nanotube.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) (a) P-E hysteresis loops of KNN nanotube arrays embedded in AAO template measured with different voltage; the inset is the schematic drawing of the measurement configuration; (b) P-E hysteresis loops of AAO template without KNN nanotubes and with nanotubes.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) (a) Hysteresis phase loop and (b) amplitude loop of an individual KNN nanotube under axial bias voltage; the insets of Fig. 5(a) are the SEM image of top-view of nanotubes array (left, the bar is 500 nm) and the schematic drawing of the measurement configuration for PFM (right).


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Table I.

Lattice parameters for KNN nanotubes and powders.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Synthesis, characterization and ferroelectric properties of lead-free K0.5Na0.5NbO3 nanotube arrays