Operation principle of the SN-HAN cell: (a) without voltage, (b) switch-on dc voltage, and (c) switch-off dc voltage.
Switching characteristics of the SN-HAN cell under 30 V dc pulse-voltage operations. The homeotropic PI concentrations are (a) 0 wt %, (b) 2 wt %, (c) 3.3 wt %, and (d) 4 wt %.
Measured polar, dispersive, and total surface energies of the M-PI-coated substrates.
Measured pretilt angles and polar anchoring coefficients of the M-PI-coated substrates.
(a) Calculated LC director distributions of the HAN cell at various pretilt angles under 0 and 5 V voltages and (b) calculated relaxation torques of the HAN cell at various pretilt angles.
Surface morphologies of the M-PI-coated substrates at (a) 0 wt % and (b) 6 wt % H-PI concentrations.
Surface roughnesses of the M-PI-coated substrates.
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