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Manipulation of the catalyst-support interactions for inducing nanotube forest growth
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Cross section and (b) high-magnification top-view SEM images of CNTs grown for 10 min at 650 °C in atmospheric pressure on 1 nm Ni film subject to OP. (d) High- and (e) low-magnification top-view SEM images of CNTs grown at same conditions, except for RP. [(c) and (e)] HRTEM images of these tubes.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) [(a) and (d)] AFM topography of SiO2-supported 0.5 nm Ni film pretreated for 5 min at 650 °C in atmospheric pressure, under reducing or oxidizing environments, respectively. [(b) and (e)] XPS Ni 2p 3/2 core level lines of (a) and (d) nanoparticles, respectively. [(c) and (f)] Schematic representation of OP and RP nanoparticles, respectively.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

[(a)–(c)] Schematic representations of possible metal silicate structures: metal cation incorporation into silicate framework, polymeric silicate, and surface silicate, respectively. (d) Typical phase diagram of a ternary M–O–Si system. (e) M–O–Si phase diagram for RP.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

AFM topography of SiO2-supported 1 nm Ni film receiving pretreatment at 750 °C in atmospheric pressure for 5, 15, and 60 min, [(a)–(c)] under oxidizing atmospheres and [(d)–(f)] under reducing atmospheres, respectively.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Schematic representation of SiO2-supported metals restructuring into nanoparticles under OP or RP and its influence on posttreatment/CNT growth.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) (a) SEM image of CNTs grown on OP films for 1 min at 700 °C by supplying C2H2, then stopped for 15 min, and restarted for another 10 min at 550 °C. (b) Schematic of this growth process for OP films.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) (a) XPS Fe 2p 3/2 core level lines of SiO2-supported 1 nm Fe film subject to Ar pretreatment for 15 min at 670 °C and atmospheric pressure. (b) CNTs grown on nanoparticles characterized in (a) by the addition of H2 and C2H2.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Species detected by XPS after RP or OP.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Manipulation of the catalyst-support interactions for inducing nanotube forest growth