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CF4 plasma treatment on nanostructure band engineered Gd2O3-nanocrystal nonvolatile memory
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10.1063/1.3556761
/content/aip/journal/jap/109/6/10.1063/1.3556761
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/109/6/10.1063/1.3556761
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) The cross-sectional structure and experimental process flow of the Gd2O3-NC memories. The HRTEM shows that the diameter of the Gd2O3-NC was about 8 nm.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) (a) F 1s core-level XPS spectra at film surface for the Gd2O3-NC memories with CF4 plasma treatment for 30 s and 1 min; (b) F 1s XPS depth profile of Gd2O3-NC memories with CF4 plasma treatment for 1 min and analyzed from Gd2O3 film surface. The TOA was 90° to measure the XPS spectra.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) (a) UV–visible absorption spectra of the Gd2O3 films with and without 900 °C postdeposition annealing and CF4 plasma treatment. The extracted bandgaps of a-Gd2O3, c-Gd2O3, and F_1min samples were 6.19, 5.44, and 6.32 eV, respectively. (b) Fluorine SIMS depth profile of the Gd2O3-NC memories with CF4 plasma treatment and postplasma annealing at 700 °C.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Energy band diagrams of the Gd2O3-NC memories (a) without and with CF4 plasma treatment for (b) 30s and (c) 1min, which were speculated from fluorine XPS spectra and UV–visible absorption spectra.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) The tapping mode AFM 3D pictures of the Gd2O3-NC memories with and without CF4 plasma treatment. The surface roughness was also estimated from the rms value.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) (a) The gate current density vs VG V FB characteristics at program region, where VG V FB was ranged from 8 to 12 V; (b) the gate leakage current density vs gate voltage characteristics. The gate voltage approaching zero presents the retention region.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) (a) Program speed of the Gd2O3-NC memories with CF4 plasma treatment. The program voltage (VG V FB) was 12 V. The flatband voltage (V FB) was extracted at the normalized capacitance for 0.6. The C–V curves measured at 12 V for 1 ms were shown in the inset. All C–V curves were normalized by subtracting V FBf, the flatband voltage of fresh sample. (b) The extracted memory window of the Gd2O3-NC memories at various program voltages for 1 ms pulse width.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) (a) Erase speed of the Gd2O3-NC memories with CF4 plasma treatment. The erase voltage (VG V FB) was −14 V. The C–V curves measured at −14 V for 1 s were shown in the inset. (b) The extracted memory window of the Gd2O3-NC memories at various erase voltages for 100 ms pulse width.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) (a) Charge retention characteristics of the Gd2O3-NC memories at room temperature. The charge loss rate can be fitted by two straight lines for shallow-trap and deep-trap electron loss and shown in inset; (b) Arrhenius plots of charge loss for the Gd2O3-NC memories with and without CF4 plasma treatment at 50 W for 1 min. The charge loss was measured from 298 to 358 K. Energy band diagrams of the Gd2O3-NC memories at retention mode were shown in the inset.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) The endurance characteristics of the Gd2O3-NC memories with CF4 plasma treatment. The samples were programed at 12 V for 1 ms and erase at −14 V for 1 s for 104 cycles. The sample with CF4 plasma treatment for 3 min at erase state was not stable owing to the plasma damage.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/109/6/10.1063/1.3556761
2011-03-17
2014-04-16
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: CF4 plasma treatment on nanostructure band engineered Gd2O3-nanocrystal nonvolatile memory
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/109/6/10.1063/1.3556761
10.1063/1.3556761
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