(Color online) Equivalent circuit of the measuring setup and sample under test.
(Color online) Voltage train pulses that are applied for the three used measurement techniques. (a) DHM, (b) DLCC, and (c) PUND. The shaded areas correspond to the measuring intervals.
(Color online) Ferroelectric loops on a YMnO3 thin film, obtained by using the DHM, DLCC, and PUND techniques at (a) 1 and (b) 10 kHz.
(Color online) Current versus voltage loops measured at 5 K for YMnO3 with PUND at (a) 100 Hz, (b) 1, (c) 10, and (d) 100 kHz. The data labeled with FE peak, ileakage, iɛ, Rs, and L reveal, respectively, the effects of the ferroelectric switching, leakage current, the charging current of the capacitor, the resistance in series, and the wiring inductance.
(Color online) Current (left-axis) and polarization (right-axis) vs voltage loops measured at 5 K for YMO after PUND compensation at (a) 100 Hz (b) 1, (c) 10, and (d) 100 kHz.
(Color online) Frequency dependence of the remanent polarization for (a) YMO (YMnO3, at 5 K), (b) BTO (BaTiO3, at room temperature), and (c) BLNMO (Bi0.9La0.1NiMnO6, at 5 K) thin films, obtained using the DHM, DLCC, and PUND techniques. DLCC data for BLNMO are not plotted because they were too noisy, due to the significance of losses. The solid lines are fits to Eq. (4).
Remanent polarization and leakage. Values obtained for remanent polarization P r,0 and leakage charge corresponding to the fits to Eq. (4) of data in Fig. 6. r2 is the fitting correlation coefficient.
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