Schematic of laser-induced breakdown of liquid column.
Experimental setup for the LIB of liquid column and visualization of shock wave generated.
Schematic diagram and shadowgraph images after 500 ns at the LIB of various laser intensities: (a) I = 17.5 G W/cm2, (b) I = 32.0 GW/cm2, and (c) I = 40 GW/cm2. [Incident energy (a) Ei = 35 mJ, (b) Ei = 64 mJ, and (c) Ei = 80 mJ].
Shadowgraph images of (a) air breakdown, and liquid columns (D = 250 μm) at different distances s from laser focal point at Ei = 300 mJ: (b) s = 0.5 mm, (c) s = 1.5 mm, and (d) s = 3.5 mm.
Averaged shock wave velocity at 500 ns after the LIB for various column positions s. (Ei = 300 mJ).
Shock wave velocity Uy for various (a) D and (b) Ei at R y = 2 mm.
Shock wave pressure and increase ratio (D = 400 μm, Ei = 400 mJ) versus function of distance R.
The fraction of transmitted energy (error bar: energy fluctuation of transmitted energy) compared with the incident energy (Et/Ei ) versus input energy.
Blast wave energy and increase ratio for air and liquid column breakdown (D = 400 μm, Ei = 400 mJ) versus transit time.
Shock wave pressure p and ratio of pressure increase at R = 2 mm for various E i and D.
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