(Color online) Normalized TPV signals produced by a small-amplitude laser pulse on inverted organic solar cells with ZnO hole-blocking layer. Different steady-state open-circuit values are indicated.
(Color online) Example of impedance spectroscopy spectra registered in open-circuit conditions at different white light illumination intensities. Low-frequency arc is produced by the parallel connection of recombination resistance and charge storage, chemical capacitance . Carrier lifetime is calculated from .
(Color online) Comparison of carrier lifetime extracted from TPV and IS techniques on inverted organic solar cells with ZnO hole-blocking layer.
(Color online) (a) Recombination resistance and chemical capacitance extracted from IS. Both parameters exhibit an exponential dependence on as , and with , and , respectively. If an exponential tail of trapping states is assumed as , then being the characteristic temperature of the exponential distribution. (b) Carrier lifetime as a function of the photogenerated carrier density, exhibiting a power-law as with . Recombination coefficient calculated using Eq. (6).
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