(a) A schematic diagram of the FCVA deposition chamber showing the biased mesh and sample holder. Vm and Vs are voltages applied to the mesh and substrate, respectively. Im and Is, are the currents flowing from the mesh and substrate to ground. (b) A schematic representation of the energy variation of the depositing species as a function of distance from the mesh. The solid lines indicate the energy that an ion would have at each distance for (1) no mesh bias and a substrate voltage of 0 V and (2) a large negative mesh bias. The dashed line (3) shows the energy of a neutral formed in the vicinity of the mesh by recombination of an ion with an electron.
(Color online) The compressive stress in carbon films as a function of bias voltage applied directly to the substrate (squares) compared to the stress in films deposited on substrates at floating potential and with bias applied to a mesh located at the indicated distances from the substrate.
The floating voltage of the substrate holder for a range of mesh biases for a mesh-sample holder separation of 11 mm.
(Color online) The current flowing through the substrate holder as a function of mesh bias for the substrate biases indicated.
(Color online) The (a) deposition rate and (b) compressive stress of carbon films deposited on Si substrates as a function of substrate bias, V s, for mesh biases, V m, of −100 and −400 V. In (a), the residual deposition rate at +100 V substrate voltage is evidence for neutrals in the flux.
The (a) sp2 fraction and (b) density of carbon films deposited on Si substrates as a function of substrate bias for a mesh bias of −100 V.
High resolution TEM image of a film prepared with a mesh bias of −600 V and without substrate bias. The inset shows a diffraction pattern from the film and indexed to graphite.
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