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Origin of size effect on efficiency of organic photovoltaics
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) (a) Minidish dual-axis tracking solar concentrator (20 cm in diameter). (b) Uniform cell irradiation via a kaleidoscope. (c) Top view of cells of various areas. (d) The layer sequence of the inverted P3HT:PCBM BHJ cell (through-glass illumination). The solar cell area is defined as the overlap between the ITO and the Ag electrodes.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) The dark J–V curves for three representative cells with various areas in a semilogarithmic scale. Inset shows the same curves in a linear scale.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) I SC (a), V OC (b), FF (c), and PCE (d) for the representative cells of various areas as a function of sunlight concentration C. Inset in (a) shows zoom-in for low concentrations (0.2 ≤ C ≤ 20 suns).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) (a) J–V curves of the 1 cm2 cell measured in the dark and under illumination of 1 sun. It is evident that the J ph = J light − J dark measured at the short-circuit conditions (J phJ SC) is much higher that that measured at open circuit (V OC = 0.59 V). Compensation voltage V 0 at which J light = J dark is also indicated (V0  = 0.64 V). (b) The same curves replotted as J ph vs V eff =V 0V. V eff values for open-circuit (OC) and short-circuit (SC) conditions are indicated.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) V OC as a function of Ln (J SC) (a) and Ln (J ph@V OC) (b).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Dependence of J ph on V eff =V 0V in a log–log scale for three representative cells with various areas measured under ∼1 sun (a), ∼5 suns (b), and ∼10 suns (c). The line marks the slope of 1 for comparison (J phV eff). Positions of OC, maximum power point (MPP), and SC are indicated by diamonds, circles, and stars, respectively.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Light intensity dependence of J ph for the cells of various sizes at SC (a), MPP (b), and OC (c).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Simplified one-dimensional graphic sketch for a solar cell with distributive series resistance.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Record efficiencies for BHJ OPV.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Analysis of the light intensity dependence of J SC and comparison of diode quality factors n obtained by three different methods: fitting the curves V OC vs ln(J SC); fitting the curves V OC vs ln(J ph@V OC); fitting the dark J–V curves.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Origin of size effect on efficiency of organic photovoltaics