Schematic diagrams of the IFDTN mode using LCs with a negative dielectric anisotropy (a) before and after the application of an electric field with (b) stacked alignment layer and (c) vertical alignment layer alone.
Schematic diagrams of the (a), (b) stacked alignment layer system, (c) reverse rubbing process, and (d) top view of the sample.
Numerical calculations of the (a) polar angle and (b) azimuthal angle according to various azimuthal anchoring energies.
(a) Measured azimuthal anchoring energies and textures of the samples under a polarizing microscope according to the thickness of the vertical alignment layer on the planar alignment layer, Textures of (b), (c), (d), (e) IFDTN samples with various stacked layers, (f), (g), (h) IFD samples with a single layer, and (i) the twisting direction of the IFDTN sample.
(a) Measured voltage-transmittances and (b) viewing angle characteristics of the IFDTN sample. The white line inside the figure indicates a 50:1 contrast ratio.
The material parameters of the LCs used in numerical calculation.
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