(Color online) Sample S1: (a) confocal scans taken at several depths below the implanted surface for as-grown CVD diamond samples showing a decrease in the concentration of native NV center fluorescence closer to the surface. The numbers in (a) represent depths at which the confocal scans were taken. Each scan covered an area 60 × 60 μm2. (b) Corresponding low (LR) and high resolution (HR) photoluminescence (PL) spectra taken from a representative native NV center. The low resolution spectrum shows an NV−/NV0 ratio of ∼3 while the high resolution spectrum shows that each NV center gives a single spectrometer limited PL peak. First (D1) and second order (D2) diamond Raman lines are also shown in the LR spectrum. (c) Representative PLE spectrum obtained from one of the native NV centers. (d) NV− and NV0 peak intensities as a function of laser excitation power. The NV−/NV0 ratio is constant at around 3.
(Color online) Sample S2: (a) Confocal spectrum showing NV centers in a region implanted to a fluence of 1 × 108 cm−2 at RT. (b) Second order auto-correlation function measurements from one of the NV centers shown in (a) confirms that the center is a single NV center. (c) Ensemble intensities of the NV0 and NV− obtained for several fluences. (d) The NV−/NV0 ratio obtained from the data in (c) for samples implanted at room temperature (RT) and at liquid nitrogen temperature (LN2).
Sample S2: (a) and (b) plots of NV0 and NV− PL spectra for a sample implanted to a fluence of 1 × 109 cm−2 at RT and at LN2 temperature, respectively. (c) NV−/NV0 ratio for RT and LN2 implanted samples. The NV−/NV0 ratio for native NV centers shown earlier in Fig. 1 has been included for comparison. The ratio is seen to be lower but increases with power for the implanted NV centers while it is constant at ∼3 for native bulk NV centers.
Sample S3: (a) PL spectra taken at 80 K using the 514.5 nm line of an argon-ion laser at different temperatures between 800 and 2000 °C showing the NV0 and the NV− peaks at 575 and 637 nm, respectively. The spectrum for the sample annealed at 2000 °C has been multiplied by 10 for easy viewing. The 2nd order diamond Raman peak is labeled as D2. (b) Normalized intensity of NV0, NV−, and NV−/NV0 ratio. (c) Variation of the FWHM of NV0 and NV− with annealing temperature.
Implantation conditions for the samples studied.
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