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Octahedral tilt transitions in relaxed epitaxial Pb(Zr1− x Ti x )O3 films
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10.1063/1.3580328
/content/aip/journal/jap/109/9/10.1063/1.3580328
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/109/9/10.1063/1.3580328

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) θ–2θ and (b) φ scan of a representative (100)pc oriented sample showing no second phase and registry with the substrate, indicating epitaxy. (c) θ–2θ and (d) φ scan of a representative (111)pc oriented sample showing no second phase and registry with the substrate, indicating epitaxy.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Dark field TEM images recorded close to the <100>pc zone axis for the compositions of (a) x = 0.2, (b) x = 0.3, and (c) x = 0.4, respectively.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

<110>pc zone axis electron diffraction patterns recorded at room temperature for the compositions of (a) x = 0.2, (b) x = 0.3, and (c) x = 0.4, respectively. The weak polycrystalline ring pattern observed in some electron diffraction patterns is an artifact of the ion thinning process in which nanocrystals form at the TEM foil surface as a result of PbO loss. The effect is well known and does not influence the diffraction data obtained from the bulk of the foil but does increase the diffuse background intensity.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

<110>pc zone axis electron diffraction patterns for composition of x = 0.2, recorded at (a) room temperature and (b) 130 °C, respectively; <100>pc zone axis electron diffraction patterns for composition of x = 0.3, recorded at (c) room temperature and (d) 100 °C, respectively; <110>pc zone axis electron diffraction patterns for composition of x = 0.4, recorded at (e) −163 °C and (f) room temperature, respectively. Arrows indicate 1/2{ooo} reflections from the PZT layer.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) (a) Temperature dependence of for x = 0.2–0.4 and the spontaneous strain for and . The integrated intensity of the 1/2{311}pc reflection is plotted with the spontaneous strain calculated from the 444pc reflection for (b) x = 0.2, (c) x = 0.3, and (d) x = 0.4. The arrows indicate the recorded phase transition temperatures for the samples measured.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Integrated intensity of the 1/2{311}pc reflection and corresponding full width at half maximum of the φ scans for relaxed Pb(Zr1− x Ti x )O3 films with (a) x = 0.2, (b) x = 0.3, and (c) x = 0.4. The increase in FWHM indicates local tilting present within the films at temperatures above the bulk TTilt.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Relative permittivity and loss tangent vs temperature for samples with composition (a) x = 0.2, (b) x = 0.3 and (c) x = 0.4 at 10 kHz and 1/ε r versus temperature for films with (d) x = 0.2, (e) x = 0.3, and (f) x = 0.4 plotted with corresponding integrated intensities of the 1/2{311}pc peak. The appearance of intensity at the 1/2{311}pc peak correlates with a dielectric anomaly within the films. (The solid lines are linear fits to the experimental data to illustrate the deviation from linearity and vertical arrows along x-axis indicate the location of the bulk TTilt).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) P2 SW shown with the integrated intensity of the 1/2{311}pc reflection to illustrate the effects of local tilting on the switchable polarization of the film for samples with (a) x = 0.2, (b) x = 0.3, and (c) x = 0.4. Also shown are the room temperature hysteresis loops for the compositions. (The solid lines are linear fits to the experimental data to illustrate the deviation from linearity and vertical arrows along x-axis denote the bulk tilt transition temperature).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Pb(Zr1− x Ti x )O3 thin film phase diagram measured by various techniques. F denotes the ferroelectric phase, A an antiferroelectric phase, and P the paraelectric phase. The subscripts T, M, R, O, and C refer to the tetragonal, monoclinic, rhombohedral, orthorhombic, and cubic phases. LT and RT refer to low temperature and high temperature phases, respectively. The shaded region is the region of nonzero tilt where short-range order or short coherence length or reduced tilt amplitude was observed within the films.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Full width at half maximum for Pb(Zr1−xTix)O3 Thin Films.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/109/9/10.1063/1.3580328
2011-05-06
2014-04-16
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Octahedral tilt transitions in relaxed epitaxial Pb(Zr1−xTix)O3 films
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/109/9/10.1063/1.3580328
10.1063/1.3580328
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