(Color online) CeAM device model with proposed mechanisms for RESET and SET switching (a), and band diagrams of NiO in ON and OFF states (b), where U-Coulomb repulsion, W -bandwidth, EF -Fermi level, and Δ < U.
XPS spectra for Ni 2p (a) and O 1s (b) signals of the ligand doped NiO film. Only one Ni bond state (Ni+2) is reflected in Ni 2p3/2 and O 1s peaks at 854.5 and 530 eV respectively.
Retention data for high and low resistance states up to 300°C for ligand doped NiO film.
Arrhenius plot of the activation energy equal to the energy of detrapping oxygen vacancies in reactively sputtered NiO film; the inset shows the relaxation times from LRS to HRS as a function of the bake temperature.
SEM micrograph (a) and x-ray diffraction patterns (b) of the NiO ultra-thin film.
(Color online) Unipolar resistive memory switching of NiO films. The I-V characteristics in linear (a) and logarithmic (b) scales show wide writing and reading memory windows.
(Color online) Scaling of the current in the conductive phase achieved by area scaling (a) and optimization of process conditions (b).
(Color online) The I-V characteristics for standard CeRAM device (a) and optimized CeRAM device through a combination of such parameters as scaled device area, modified process, and adjusted testing conditions (b).
AFM surface morphology images of NiO thin films (2 × 2 μm2) fabricated using the standard process (a) and with surface modifying layer (b).
(Color online) Dispersion of set and reset voltages with respect to switching cycles in Pt/NiO/Pt memory cell based on NiO thin film fabricated using the standard (a) and modified (b) processes.
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