(Color online) (a) XRD pattern of a nanocomposite film on STO (001) substrate. Inset: an enlarged region near the STO (001) reflection, showing two different orientations of the NdMnO3 phase. K β corresponds to the STO (002) reflection resulting from Cu-K β radiation; (b) Cross-sectional HAADF image of the sample along STO ; (c) HRTEM image along STO  at the interface depicted in panel (b) by the square. Inset: FFT diffraction pattern at the interface showing that NMO [−111] // STO ; (d) EDX line scan along the line shown in panel (b). The red vertical line marks the position of the red square in panel (b). The letters N and S denote NMO and STO, respectively.
(Color online) Temperature dependence of the magnetization of NdMnO3/Mn3O4 nanocomposite after field cooling in 10 Oe. Inset: ZFC/FC magnetization at 1 kOe.
(Color online) (a) Thermal remanent magnetization (TRM) measured after field cooling at 50 kOe and after zero-field cooling from 380 K to 4 K. Inset: the enlarged TRM plot from 40 K to 300 K.
(Color online) The in-plane ZFC hysteresis loops and FC loops after field-cooling at 50 kOe at (a) 4 K and (b) 15 K. The in-plane ZFC loops of Mn3O4 are shown for comparison. Inset: Low-field part of the loops.
(Color online) Temperature dependence of He and Hc (inset) after ZFC and FC at 50 kOe for NdMnO3/Mn3O4 nanocomposite film. The ZFC data for Mn3O4 single film are shown for comparison. The lines are guides to the eyes.
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