(Color) Wiring scheme for electron emission measurements and sample structure consisting of a 600 nm thick PZT film (yellow) as the ferroelectric electron emitter with a bottom electrode (green). The top view represents an AFM-image of the structured gold top electrode with a gold film thickness of 70 nm. The green arrows indicate the emission process from the apertures.
Ferroelectric hysteresis curve of the PZT film with a continuous electrode for a cycling frequency of 100 Hz and a maximum voltage of 20 V. The coercive voltage equals −5 V and 4 V.
(Color) PFM phase images of the out-of-plane polarization component for different poling voltages of (a) −20 V, (b) +16 V, (c) +18 V, and (d) +20 V applied to the top electrode. An increasing fraction of the free surface area is switched for rising magnitudes of the poling voltages. The respective topography, which was measured simultaneously, is applied as a mask (yellow) to the PFM pictures.
Dependence of the electron emission count rate recorded with a single electron detector on the applied voltage amplitude below 20 V.
(Color) Dependence of the electron emission count rate measured with a single electron detector (black curve) and electron emission current obtained with an amperemeter (red curve) on the voltage amplitude applied to the bottom electrode for a square wave voltage with a frequency of 1 kHz.
(Color) (a) Energy distribution of the emitted electrons measured by the application of a repulsive dc voltage to a metal grid in front of the single electron detector for two different excitation voltages . (b) shows the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted electrons as a function of the applied excitation voltage and the corresponding linearly fitted function.
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