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Gentle cold welding between gold nano objects driven by electrical field and atomic rearrangement
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10.1063/1.3662180
/content/aip/journal/jap/110/10/10.1063/1.3662180
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/110/10/10.1063/1.3662180

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) MEMS-in-TEM. In situ TEM observation can be performed using a MEMS device with gold opposing tips. The gap between a movable tip and a fixed tip is adjusted by MEMS electrostatic actuators controlling the driving voltage, VD, and the electrical field between tips is applied controlling the bias voltage, VB, through the electrical connection of a special TEM sample holder. The image is captured with a TV camera and records at 30 fps. A protection resistance, RP, is inserted into the circuit to suppress the current that induced electrical effects such as electromigration, melting, and evaporation.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Experimental procedure to gently form a gold nano connection. (a) The approach process: The movable tip gradually approaches the fixed tip to sub nanometer distance. (b) The formation process: The gold nano connection appears when the tips are close enough under a bias voltage. (c) The growth process: The diameter of the nano connection becomes larger and larger.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Formation process of initial connection and growth process of gold nano connection with physical contact under 0 V; (a) just before contact, (b) gold nano connection of 0.5 nm appeared between tips after 5 s from (a), (c) gold nano connection grew to 2.9 nm in diameter after 40 s from (a) (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3662180.1]doi: 10.1063/1.3662180.1.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Intermittent tunneling current between tips and the shape change of gold opposing tips with sub-nm gap under 10 mV in bias voltage. (a) Current change as a function of time. Intermittent current can be detected. (b) Gold opposing tips. (c) Nano-scaled protrusion appeared on the tip surface. The protrusion did not appear at the narrowest part. (d) The protrusion became higher and higher (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3662180.2]doi: 10.1063/1.3662180.2.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Formation process of initial connection and growth process of gold nano connection with atom extraction under 10 mV; (a) just before contact, (b) gold nano connection of 0.5 nm appeared between tips after 13 s from (a), (c) gold nano connection grew to 5.7 nm in diameter after 40 s from (a) (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3662180.3]doi: 10.1063/1.3662180.3.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Formation process of initial connection and growth process of gold nano connection with atom extraction under 1 V; (a) just before contact, (b) gold nano connection of 0.5 nm appeared between tips after 13 s from (a), (c) gold nano connection grew to 5.7 nm in diameter after 40 s from (a) (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3662180.4]doi: 10.1063/1.3662180.4.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Graph of diameter as function of time after formation of nano connection, indicating temporal change in diameter of gold nano connection under several bias voltages. The diameter change of 0 V and 1 mV, and that of 10 mV and 100 mV, were similar.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/110/10/10.1063/1.3662180
2011-11-23
2014-04-16
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Gentle cold welding between gold nano objects driven by electrical field and atomic rearrangement
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/110/10/10.1063/1.3662180
10.1063/1.3662180
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