(Color online) Typical SEM image of the material fracture surface. The scale bar is 5 μm.
(Color online) Comparison of the shock Hugoniot curves for Al with different porosities.
(Color online) Schematic of the forward impact experimental configuration for sound velocity measurements.
(Color online) Interface particle velocity histories for Al with two porosities obtained at various impact velocities. The peak particle velocities (uP ) of corresponding curves are showed in the brackets. Solid lines correspond to sample A, and dashed lines correspond to sample B. For key to experiments, please see Table III. The signals of different particle velocity histories have been offset horizontally for clarity.
(Color online) Longitudinal and bulk sound velocities vs shock pressure for Al with different porosities.
(Color online) Schematic configuration for temperature measurement.
(Color online) Spectral radiance of different wavelengths emitted from sample A/LiF interface (a) for Tem1 and (b) for Tem2. The signals of different wavelengths have been offset vertically for clarity and the offset between two wavelengths is about 0.04 mV. The approximate read positions of the signals are shown by the dashed line.
(Color online) Comparison of the calculated temperature vs pressure curves with and without the anharmonic effect for Al with different porosities.
(Color online) Melting temperature and shock Hugoniot temperature vs pressure. TH at 116 GPa is the calculated result from Fig. 8.
(Color online) Shock pressure vs volume.
(Color online) Shock melting pressure and shock melting temperature vs initial porosity.
(Color online) Anharmonic parameter vs initial porosity.
Comparison of the static longitudinal, transverse, and bulk sound velocity and Poisson ratio of Al with different porosity.
Relevant experimental parameters and results for shock Hugoniot measurements. A and B denote Al materials with initial densities of 2.607 and 2.676g/cm3, respectively, throughout all tables. PH is the pressure of Hugoniot; u is the particle velocity; D is the shock-wave velocity; and V is the volume. The uncertainty in the impact velocity W is about 0.5%. The uncertainties for the other quantities are given at 1σ level.
Relevant experimental parameters and results from sound velocity measurements of two kinds of porous Al. The sound velocity and pressure uncertainties are given at 1σ level. The uncertainty of the impact velocity W is about ±0.5%.
Experimental results from temperature measurements for sample A. The impact velocity, W, for Tem1 is a calculated result. PH and TH are the shock pressure and temperature of the sample. PI and TI are the shock pressure and temperature of the sample/window interface. TR is the temperature behind the reflected wave, and TM is the melting temperature. The pressure uncertainties are given at 1σ level. The temperature uncertainties are roughly estimated at 1σ level.
Calculation parameters for EOS.
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