(Color online) (a) Magnetization and (b) resistivity as a function of Gd concentration. (c) X-ray diffraction measurements of the NiFe (111) peak for PyGd alloys showing transformation from crystalline to amorphous films complete at 8% Gd concentration.
(Color online) (a) Ferromagnetic resonance field and (b) linewidth as a function of excitation frequency for two representative samples. The small linewidth values obtained by extrapolation to zero frequency are indicative of high uniformity films. (c) Fitting of the resonance fields yields the gyromagnetic ratio and (d) fitting of the linewidth yields the damping parameter.
(Color online) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the fabricated Doppler device with a 2 μm wide PyGd wire, seen here as a thin horizontal line. S12 (S21) refers to the spin wave transmission from RF port 2(1) to port 1(2). The direction of electron flow for positive current is represented by the arrow in the image. The inset shows a magnified image of the microwave antennas with a center-to-center distance of 7 μm.
(Color online) (a) Real part of the transmission impedance Z12 and Z21 when a current density of +/−1.3 × 1011 A/m2 flows through the Py0.96Gd0.04 wire. (b) The relative frequency shift, Δf, as a function of applied current density for different PyGd alloys with linear fits. (c) Spin transfer velocity as a function of Gd concentration for a current density of 1011 A/m2.
(Color online) (a) Current polarization of PyGd alloys. (b) Spin-up and spin-down conductivities as a function of Gd concentration.
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